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As time goes by... Mixed showing after five years of EU eastern enlargement

May 12, 2009
Region:
On May 1, 2004 the European Union was enlarged by ten new Member States. Their political and economic integration brought growth in trade, economic output and employment – but also in economic connectivity and mutual interdependence. As a result, the global economic and financial crisis has triggered serious economic slumps in some of the new EU members. It is now time to take initial stock of integration and turn to consideration of the outstanding issues. [more]

More documents about "Europe"

173 (157-168)
July 27, 2012
157
Since 2006 the European Union has increasingly been looking to sign deep and comprehensive free trade agreements with emerging markets. In the meantime it has also been turning its attention to some industrialised nations. A trade agreement with South Korea has already come into effect. Although the EU is pinning great hopes on India and a number of ASEAN states, it is also keen to conclude similar agreements with Mercosur, Canada, Ukraine and virtually all of the Southern Mediterranean countries. It is even considering Japan and the United States as potential partners. If the European Union's bilateral free trade strategy were fully implemented by the end of this decade, it would give a moderate boost to trade, welfare, growth and employment in the EU and would often provide a much stronger stimulus in the partner countries concerned. This free trade strategy is also highly ambitious in terms of its diplomatic objectives because issues that have so far received insufficient attention – such as trade in services, technical trade barriers and foreign direct investment – are to be better regulated. Whether the EU – currently the world's largest trading bloc – is ultimately successful with this strategy will in many cases be decided by domestic politics in the partner countries. The fundamental question of whether a deep bilateral strategy should perhaps be complemented by a parallel multilateral approach as a matter of considerable urgency will be especially pertinent in transatlantic relations. However, there is also a risk of tensions within the international system. [more]
May 2, 2012
Region:
158
Europe is adopting a new approach: economic policy coordination in the EU and the eurozone has undergone fundamental reform over the last two years. Now it is conducted via three pillars that address general economic policy, fiscal policy and macroeconomic imbalances. However, disruption is still caused by exemptions, conflicting objectives and time inconsistencies. The new rule book will only be able gain a good reputation going forward if it is applied rigorously. The pressure of the capital markets will remain a key driver of reform in this regard. [more]
May 2, 2012
Region:
159
Deposits are the most important source of funding for European banks, providing about 60% of the total. At the same time, private-sector deposits tend to be less volatile than other funding instruments. The importance of deposits is set to increase even further in the medium term because of new regulatory requirements and higher levels of risk aversion at banks. Boosting deposit volumes could enable moderate growth in bank assets and thus also an increase in lending to the private sector over the coming years. However, this would require that households hold a larger share of their savings in the form of deposits and invest a smaller proportion in insurance policies. [more]
April 5, 2012
Region:
160
For the first time in at least a decade, all major revenue components at the 20 largest European banks declined simultaneously. Apart from trading income (-24%), the decrease was modest (interest income -0.5%, fees & commissions -1%) yet the looming challenge for banks’ business models has finally become crystal clear: there is no obvious driver for future growth. [more]
November 30, 2011
Region:
161
Migration can be an effective way of reducing geographical imbalances on the labour markets. Together with politicians and the larger society, companies have a key role to play in integrating migrant workers. It is also in the interest of companies to make good use of the international pool of qualified labor. With 20% of the population being either immigrants themselves (10%) or second-generation immigrants (another 10% according to the EU Commission) – both in Germany and France – the costs of not fully integrating this potential are high, both for business and society. [more]
November 15, 2011
Region:
162
The world economic crisis has seriously weakened potential economic growth in many industrialised countries for the coming years. And new regulatory requirements in the financial sector are likely to deal it a further blow. This has made economic policy measures to stimulate economic growth in the wake of structural reform an absolutely essential complement to macroeconomic measures, especially in the big industrial nations. Even at a time when the scope has narrowed for fiscal policy, this still holds true. It is precisely in periods of consolidation that structural reforms are vital to sustained success. [more]
August 2, 2011
Region:
163
Europe on the way to becoming a transfer union? The euro rescue packages - and the ECB’s involvement in the crisis - are reputed to be the forerunners of a transfer union between the euro countries. However, for the time being these are mainly government guarantees, the failure of which cannot be taken for granted. The EU is even further away from systematic financial equalisation of the euro countries. Nevertheless, continuing macroeconomic tensions could increase the need for transfers - and further inflame political tensions. [more]
November 25, 2010
Region:
164
The reasons for the current problems of some euro-area sovereigns on the capital markets differ from country to country. In the case of Greece, it was mainly a persistently unsound fiscal policy that led to a loss of confidence among investors, while in Ireland this was primarily due to a credit bubble which had inflated the size of the financial sector. [more]
September 17, 2010
Region:
165
The responsibility to manage volatility in agriculture is increasingly in farmers’ hands and they will need to rely more heavily on market-based tools. All in all, public policy could be most useful in increasing the risk management ability of farmers. Any extension of the public safety net will reduce the incentives for farmers and other agents along the food supply chain to manage their risks effectively through derivatives, private insurance or on-farm strategies like production diversification. Policies need to empower farmers to take their own risk management decisions and to have access to a diversity of instruments and strategies. More direct interventions are likely better kept as a means of last resort and restricted to measures which do not act at the expense of the rest of the world or of environmental sustainability. [more]
August 2, 2010
Region:
Analyst:
166
Financial market size: Traditional centres lose market shares, emerging markets up-and-coming. US and EU financial markets continue to provide around three-quarters of global financial services, albeit, after the crisis, at substantially lower overall levels of market activity in many market segments. Emerging financial markets, especially in Asia, have grown strongly in past years and are set to accelerate their catch-up process. [more]
July 12, 2010
Region:
167
The euro-area countries urgently need to slash their debt and they will have to find new ways to address this task in the process. Germany’s debt brake is an intelligent concept for achieving a long-term reduction in public debt that could also be remodelled to fit the conditions in other euro countries. National debt brakes could help cut public debt on a long-term horizon without jeopardising the growth prospects of the euro-area economies. [more]
June 22, 2009
Region:
Analyst:
168
Five years after the Ecofin Council reached agreement on the Savings Taxation Directive, the European Commission has submitted a proposal on its extension. The prevailing political climate for more cooperation and exchange of information between the States has improved significantly in recent months. A flurry of new bilateral agreements, initiatives at OECD level and further EU proposals for directives underscore the momentum that has gathered here. Negotiations on amendment of the Savings Taxation Directive will presumably not drag on again. [more]
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